Climate change, as the name suggests, it is a simple change in the climate. But the

actual image is not that simple because it is of two kinds, such as a shift in

temperature and weather patterns through variations in the Solar Cycle means it can

be natural and not harmful. But things get worse when human hands make that shift in

the temperature rise by burning fossil fuels, running industries unhealthy to the

environment, and the egoistic and inhumane experiments of bombs. These all have

long-lasting and unfortunate impacts on the health of the climate of our globe. The

species, ecosystems, and natural resources on which human life depends are all being

significantly impacted by climate change. It goes without saying that climate change

may not be the best development for Earth’s life.

As a result of its implications on commercial operations, developing nations’

efforts to get resources, and our efforts to reconstruct local communities after

suffering the negative consequences of natural disasters brought on by global

warming, climate change has become a major challenge. The WMO Global

Atmosphere Watch reports that despite emissions reductions brought on by the

COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns in 2020, atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG)

concentrations are still rising. The Global Carbon Project also points out that, in 2021,

global fossil CO2 emissions were back to their pre-pandemic levels after experiencing

a significant, albeit brief, absolute decline as a result of widespread lockdowns.

According to the WMO State of the Global Climate 2021 report, which concluded

that the most recent seven years, 2015 to 2021, were the warmest on record, these

conditions are causing an increase in the global surface temperature and other climatic


The situation predicted is even worse, the IPCC predicts that the average

sea level of oceans will increase by around 82cm by the year 2100, Global temperature is

projected to warm by about 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2050 and 2-4 degrees Celsius by


The causes to this burning issue are numerous, some of which are as follows;

The cause obvious to all is the greenhouse effect caused by greenhouse gases,

major of all CO2 and CFCs(chlorofluorocarbons) which are emitted after our daily

usage such as fossil fuels for energy purposes and spray paints for coloring cars and

houses, and on large scale in industries. These gases while entering our atmosphere do

pollute our air and break the ozone layer which is there protecting the world from the

UV rays of the Sun these gases also block the way of these rays, which are high in

temperature, to exit from the earth’s atmosphere and ultimately end in the rise in

temperature called the greenhouse effect. Similar to how a greenhouse is warmer than

its surroundings, the greenhouse effect warms the earth.

Deforestation is one of the other causes that have added to the issue forests are the

main source of cooling down the world by absorbing CO2. More carbon dioxide is

released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation in tropical rain forests than

from all the automobiles and trucks on the planet’s roadways combined. The World

Carfree Network (WCN) estimates that automobiles and trucks contribute roughly

14% of the world’s carbon emissions, whereas most analysts put the figure at 15% or

more. Examples will never be less to quote, easy to put is that the biggest cause of

climate change in a negative sense that is now hurting people badly, is only due to

humans themselves, due to their greed, ego, and somehow their mad obsessions with

modernization by any means and competition by any means.

Starting from the period of industrialization till the period of information and

technology the lifestyles might have changed people but not their thoughts

because they have remained savage and have never learned from the past.

Implications of Climate Change worldwide

Quoting the implications, we might get out of numbers because climate change has hit

the globe hard. These changes in climate have affected our daily usages starting from

water and food, without which our living is not possible, to our air without which we

can’t breathe.

The implications added to our ecosystem are of various kinds, for example, drought

and flooding due to changes in weather patterns, in both cases, lead to food insecurity

and incline in diseases and booth leading to higher mortality rates. It includes the rise

in sea levels which can and have engulfed dry coastal lands, and many countries like

Bangladesh, Maldives, China, Japan, Vietnam, and more are at risk of losing land,

and citizens to coastal flooding by the end of the century.

According to Envirotech, the sources deployed to gather the data have been found

unreliable because the true numbers may be up to three times higher than the actual

predicted (147-216 million people) at risk. In practical terms, this implies that by

2100, the areas that support 650 million population( 10% of the world population)

might be underwater.

further, Along with the ocean’s levels rising, other changes are also taking place.

About 30% of the carbon dioxide produced into the atmosphere by the combustion of

fossil fuels is absorbed by the ocean. As a result, the water’s acidity is rising, which is

bad for marine life. Numerous changes in ecosystems are being brought on by the

combined effects of climate change. Stronger hurricanes can devastate coral reefs, sea

level rise can suffocate corals with sand, and hotter temperatures can trigger coral

bleaching. Coral reefs are vulnerable to numerous effects of climate change.

Numerous species live in coral reef habitats and depend on them for



1 of Climate Change On the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia also like many other countries is facing the consequences of climate


The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is at a critical juncture. Recent long-term

studies of the region show that increasing temperatures and evaporation rates are

likely to further reduce the nation’s limited water supplies, which are necessary for

meeting its agricultural, industrial, and domestic needs; more extreme flooding events

could endanger lives, the economy, and infrastructure; and a combination of rising

heat and humidity levels may ultimately render the kingdom uninhabitable.

Economic Implications

Like many other countries, Saudi Arabia is also under the threat of severe impacts

of climate change. Saudi Arabia’s income does come from the oil export sector which

accounts for roughly 87% of Saudi budget revenues, 90% of export earnings, and

42% of GDP. Now if we visit the causes section of climate change, the biggest

contributor to the rising temperature is the combustion of fossil fuels, which Saudi

Arabia exports and is the backbone of its economy. Now the world is looking for

environment friendly alternatives which will cost Saudi Arabia a huge price

ultimately. Saudi Arabian government itself has now started programs to find

alternatives to replace the place of the petroleum industry, Vision 2030 is a radically

ambitious plan to fundamentally restructure the statist economy of the Kingdom so

that it is no longer dependent on revenue from oil exports.

Field and vegetable crops are anticipated to need 10–13% more water by 2100 due

to regional changes in temperature and carbon dioxide levels. Smallholder farmers’

output will decline due to the increased strain on water resources in an area that

already lacks water, furthering their destitution or causing them to look for alternative

sources of income. According to a Canadian study from The University of British

Columbia, the Arabian Gulf is particularly sensitive to the effects of climate change,

with a high rate of local marine species loss (up to 35%) anticipated by 2090

compared to 2010. Economically challenged fishermen on Saudi Arabia’s eastern

coast are under a lot of stress as a result of this.

Environmental Implications

Saudi Arabia is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change that pose an

increasing risk to its water security, such as a decrease in frequency and amount of

precipitation and an increase in temperature. According to Researchgate distillation of

seawater from 30 plants along the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf are the main source of

50 % of domestic demand. The government of Saudi Arabia is aiming to expand

desalination by building more plants along the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea.

Distillation of seawater is an expensive process, now when situations are even getting

worse and water scarcity will rise it will ultimately affecting the agricultural land and

groundwater resources to fulfill the requirement of the people.

Heavy rainfall in Saudi Arabia sometimes results in flash floods. The country receives

intense rainfall especially in the mountainous southwestern region, which tends to

flood seasonal water courses

Future climate scenarios indicate an increase in the length of dry periods, high

aridity, rapidly depleting groundwater reserves, and projected temperature increases indicate that water stress is bound to increase. Greater rainfall variability may also

result in prolonged droughts.

Sand and dust storms are frequent mainly due to the country’s desert soils and

landscape. High winds carrying sand and dust rise into the air forming clouds that

often reduce visibility to zero. These storms disrupt transport and communication and

increase respiratory health-related diseases. They also contribute to the spread of

desertification by transporting and depositing sand and sediments, which destroy

crops, natural habitats, and infrastructure.


Graph Helper3

Policies of KSA to confront Climate Change Consequences

The reports on the scale and magnitude of the impact of climate change on the

population of the coastal and central areas of Saudi Arabia is alarming. Saudi Arabia

has taken some steps to address the challenge of rising sea levels and stress on water

resources by initiating studies to assess infrastructure vulnerability, reducing the

cultivation of high-water consuming crops, investing in farmlands in Africa, and

North and Latin America to ensure food security.

October 2021 saw an improvement in Saudi Arabia’s commitment to climate action

within its own borders when it updated its Paris Agreement pledge and announced a

net zero target for 2060. We expect Saudi Arabia’s emissions to increase in the

coming years but to stabilize in the second half of this decade. These changes lead to

an improvement in its CAT rating from “Critically insufficient” to “Highly


After reaching their peak in 2015, Saudi Arabia’s national emissions have lately

fallen, in part because of a decline in oil consumption in the electricity sector and,

more recently, because of the COVID-19 pandemic’s economic effects and the

ensuing global decline in oil consumption. With the exception of a few expenditures


3 rail and public transportation and a few early steps toward the development of

renewable energy, Saudi Arabia has not done much to address the environment.

The Saudi government has made several announcements on renewable energy

objectives since 2013, but nothing has been put into action. By 2030, the most recent

goal is for 50% of electricity to come from renewable sources. However, only 0.1% of

the electricity produced in 2019 came from renewable sources.

The Saudi economy has always been based on oil production, which continues to

account for a significant chunk of its GDP today. With Saudi Aramco promising to

have net zero operational emissions by 2050, the Saudi government is now promoting

what it refers to as a “circular carbon economy” to lower emissions from oil and gas

activities. However, as most emissions connected to oil and gas occur from fuel

combustion rather than extraction and processing, this only addresses a small portion

of relevant emissions in Saudi Arabia and internationally.

Saudi Arabia has also announced its aim to plant 450 million trees by 2030—

with a long-term target of 10 billion trees, and collaborative efforts to plant 50 billion

trees in the Middle East. If Saudi Arabia plans to heavily rely on an increased forest

sink, then emissions in other sectors, such as energy and transport, could increase

significantly. The 2060 net zero target does not specify the extent to which it would

rely on the forestry and land use emissions sink.

Climate Diplomacy ( a Solution)

In addition to all these solutions and policies mentioned above regarding a country’s

effort to confront and compete with the challenges brought by climate change, there is

a need for a global-level effort to maintain the change that has happened to our

climate, if not possible to reverse. There is a way to resolve the issue and that is

simply by talking to each other, talking among the stakeholders of international

relations, that are states, unions, intergovernmental organizations, and multinational

companies. This talking is in other words called diplomacy, the art of negotiating, the

art of persuasion.

In a world where every stakeholder has different interests, ideologies, religions,

and perspectives about each other, often times which are very offensive. They fight on

interests, they fight on their ideologies to be proven right. In scenarios like these

diplomacy’s art can best display its colors. It has the potential to bring the states and

other stakeholders on a platform and also come to a profitable conclusion.

For example, the Paris Agreement (2015) was a significant achievement in

contemporary multilateral environmental diplomacy with the EU acting as a bridge

between major emitters and with the aim of shaping a coalition of the willing, in

addition to ‘leading by example. The Paris Agreement is a legally binding treaty and

creates obligations for all parties. It also includes a robust monitoring, reporting, and

evaluation (MRV) system that, more than any other measure, will help the world

reduce GHG emissions and better distribute climate finance and support.

What can a platform like GCCA+ do to support the role of LDCs (the least

developed countries) and SIDS (small islands) in climate diplomacy? It can help to

enhance the quality of enabling environment so that these countries are more ready to

attract and receive financial and technological support; enhance reporting skills,

especially on the issue of finance needs; foster cooperation and knowledge exchange.

The European Commission defines four strands of climate diplomacy at the

political level: Committing to multilateralism in climate policy, particularly to the

implementation of the Paris Agreement

 Addressing implications of climate change on peace and security

 Accelerating domestic action and raising global ambition

 Enhancing international climate cooperation through advocacy and outreach

So the term “climate diplomacy” refers to the application of diplomatic techniques to

promote the goals and efficiency of the global climate change regime as well as to

lessen the hazards that climate change poses to world peace, stability, and economic

growth. Additionally, climate diplomacy comprises utilizing the topic of climate

change to advance other foreign policy goals like enhancing multilateralism or

fostering peace and confidence. The preparation of adequate risk assessment and risk

management strategies at a global strategic level are required for climate diplomacy.

Along with prioritizing climate action with allies throughout the world, climate

diplomacy also includes using public diplomacy, external policy instruments, and

diplomatic dialogue. This entails bilaterally contacting allies and arguing in favor of

more forceful climate action.


Finally, climate change is a very serious issue that needs more focus and efforts

to be made in order to lessen its effects on the home of billions of people. The reports

that are presented by the institutions are very alarming and need to be addressed.

Scientists have predicted that the long-term effects of climate change will

include a decrease in sea ice and an increase in permafrost thawing, an increase in

heat waves and heavy precipitation, and decreased water resources in semi-arid


Climate shifts like heat waves could restrict the ability of people to work

outdoors, and, in extreme cases, put their lives at risk. Under a 2050 climate scenario

developed by NASA, continuing growth of greenhouse emissions at today’s rate could

lead to additional global warming of about 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2050. so an international

effort is needed diplomatically and politically to bring all the stakeholders to a table

and decide the future of the world, they want the future that is predicted or makes

efforts to change it for the betterment of humanity and this globe.

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