Climate change, as the name suggests, it is a simple change in the climate. But the
actual image is not that simple because it is of two kinds, such as a shift in
temperature and weather patterns through variations in the Solar Cycle means it can
be natural and not harmful. But things get worse when human hands make that shift in
the temperature rise by burning fossil fuels, running industries unhealthy to the
environment, and the egoistic and inhumane experiments of bombs. These all have
long-lasting and unfortunate impacts on the health of the climate of our globe. The
species, ecosystems, and natural resources on which human life depends are all being
significantly impacted by climate change. It goes without saying that climate change
may not be the best development for Earth’s life.
As a result of its implications on commercial operations, developing nations’
efforts to get resources, and our efforts to reconstruct local communities after
suffering the negative consequences of natural disasters brought on by global
warming, climate change has become a major challenge. The WMO Global
Atmosphere Watch reports that despite emissions reductions brought on by the
COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns in 2020, atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG)
concentrations are still rising. The Global Carbon Project also points out that, in 2021,
global fossil CO2 emissions were back to their pre-pandemic levels after experiencing
a significant, albeit brief, absolute decline as a result of widespread lockdowns.
According to the WMO State of the Global Climate 2021 report, which concluded
that the most recent seven years, 2015 to 2021, were the warmest on record, these
conditions are causing an increase in the global surface temperature and other climatic
The situation predicted is even worse, the IPCC predicts that the average
sea level of oceans will increase by around 82cm by the year 2100, Global temperature is
projected to warm by about 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2050 and 2-4 degrees Celsius by
The causes to this burning issue are numerous, some of which are as follows;
The cause obvious to all is the greenhouse effect caused by greenhouse gases,
major of all CO2 and CFCs(chlorofluorocarbons) which are emitted after our daily
usage such as fossil fuels for energy purposes and spray paints for coloring cars and
houses, and on large scale in industries. These gases while entering our atmosphere do
pollute our air and break the ozone layer which is there protecting the world from the
UV rays of the Sun these gases also block the way of these rays, which are high in
temperature, to exit from the earth’s atmosphere and ultimately end in the rise in
temperature called the greenhouse effect. Similar to how a greenhouse is warmer than
its surroundings, the greenhouse effect warms the earth.
Deforestation is one of the other causes that have added to the issue forests are the
main source of cooling down the world by absorbing CO2. More carbon dioxide is
released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation in tropical rain forests than
from all the automobiles and trucks on the planet’s roadways combined. The World
Carfree Network (WCN) estimates that automobiles and trucks contribute roughly
14% of the world’s carbon emissions, whereas most analysts put the figure at 15% or
more. Examples will never be less to quote, easy to put is that the biggest cause of
climate change in a negative sense that is now hurting people badly, is only due to
humans themselves, due to their greed, ego, and somehow their mad obsessions with
modernization by any means and competition by any means.
Starting from the period of industrialization till the period of information and
technology the lifestyles might have changed people but not their thoughts
because they have remained savage and have never learned from the past.
Implications of Climate Change worldwide
Quoting the implications, we might get out of numbers because climate change has hit
the globe hard. These changes in climate have affected our daily usages starting from
water and food, without which our living is not possible, to our air without which we
The implications added to our ecosystem are of various kinds, for example, drought
and flooding due to changes in weather patterns, in both cases, lead to food insecurity
and incline in diseases and booth leading to higher mortality rates. It includes the rise
in sea levels which can and have engulfed dry coastal lands, and many countries like
Bangladesh, Maldives, China, Japan, Vietnam, and more are at risk of losing land,
and citizens to coastal flooding by the end of the century.
According to Envirotech, the sources deployed to gather the data have been found
unreliable because the true numbers may be up to three times higher than the actual
predicted (147-216 million people) at risk. In practical terms, this implies that by
2100, the areas that support 650 million population( 10% of the world population)
might be underwater.
further, Along with the ocean’s levels rising, other changes are also taking place.
About 30% of the carbon dioxide produced into the atmosphere by the combustion of
fossil fuels is absorbed by the ocean. As a result, the water’s acidity is rising, which is
bad for marine life. Numerous changes in ecosystems are being brought on by the
combined effects of climate change. Stronger hurricanes can devastate coral reefs, sea
level rise can suffocate corals with sand, and hotter temperatures can trigger coral
bleaching. Coral reefs are vulnerable to numerous effects of climate change.
Numerous species live in coral reef habitats and depend on them for
1 https://www.britannica.com/science/global-warming/Potential-effects-of-global-warmingImplications of Climate Change On the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia also like many other countries is facing the consequences of climate
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is at a critical juncture. Recent long-term
studies of the region show that increasing temperatures and evaporation rates are
likely to further reduce the nation’s limited water supplies, which are necessary for
meeting its agricultural, industrial, and domestic needs; more extreme flooding events
could endanger lives, the economy, and infrastructure; and a combination of rising
heat and humidity levels may ultimately render the kingdom uninhabitable.
Like many other countries, Saudi Arabia is also under the threat of severe impacts
of climate change. Saudi Arabia’s income does come from the oil export sector which
accounts for roughly 87% of Saudi budget revenues, 90% of export earnings, and
42% of GDP. Now if we visit the causes section of climate change, the biggest
contributor to the rising temperature is the combustion of fossil fuels, which Saudi
Arabia exports and is the backbone of its economy. Now the world is looking for
environment friendly alternatives which will cost Saudi Arabia a huge price
ultimately. Saudi Arabian government itself has now started programs to find
alternatives to replace the place of the petroleum industry, Vision 2030 is a radically
ambitious plan to fundamentally restructure the statist economy of the Kingdom so
that it is no longer dependent on revenue from oil exports.
Field and vegetable crops are anticipated to need 10–13% more water by 2100 due
to regional changes in temperature and carbon dioxide levels. Smallholder farmers’
output will decline due to the increased strain on water resources in an area that
already lacks water, furthering their destitution or causing them to look for alternative
sources of income. According to a Canadian study from The University of British
Columbia, the Arabian Gulf is particularly sensitive to the effects of climate change,
with a high rate of local marine species loss (up to 35%) anticipated by 2090
compared to 2010. Economically challenged fishermen on Saudi Arabia’s eastern
coast are under a lot of stress as a result of this.
Saudi Arabia is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change that pose an
increasing risk to its water security, such as a decrease in frequency and amount of
precipitation and an increase in temperature. According to Researchgate distillation of
seawater from 30 plants along the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf are the main source of
50 % of domestic demand. The government of Saudi Arabia is aiming to expand
desalination by building more plants along the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea.
Distillation of seawater is an expensive process, now when situations are even getting
worse and water scarcity will rise it will ultimately affecting the agricultural land and
groundwater resources to fulfill the requirement of the people.
Heavy rainfall in Saudi Arabia sometimes results in flash floods. The country receives
intense rainfall especially in the mountainous southwestern region, which tends to
flood seasonal water courses
Future climate scenarios indicate an increase in the length of dry periods, high
aridity, rapidly depleting groundwater reserves, and projected temperature increases indicate that water stress is bound to increase. Greater rainfall variability may also
result in prolonged droughts.
Sand and dust storms are frequent mainly due to the country’s desert soils and
landscape. High winds carrying sand and dust rise into the air forming clouds that
often reduce visibility to zero. These storms disrupt transport and communication and
increase respiratory health-related diseases. They also contribute to the spread of
desertification by transporting and depositing sand and sediments, which destroy
crops, natural habitats, and infrastructure.
Policies of KSA to confront Climate Change Consequences
The reports on the scale and magnitude of the impact of climate change on the
population of the coastal and central areas of Saudi Arabia is alarming. Saudi Arabia
has taken some steps to address the challenge of rising sea levels and stress on water
resources by initiating studies to assess infrastructure vulnerability, reducing the
cultivation of high-water consuming crops, investing in farmlands in Africa, and
North and Latin America to ensure food security.
October 2021 saw an improvement in Saudi Arabia’s commitment to climate action
within its own borders when it updated its Paris Agreement pledge and announced a
net zero target for 2060. We expect Saudi Arabia’s emissions to increase in the
coming years but to stabilize in the second half of this decade. These changes lead to
an improvement in its CAT rating from “Critically insufficient” to “Highly
After reaching their peak in 2015, Saudi Arabia’s national emissions have lately
fallen, in part because of a decline in oil consumption in the electricity sector and,
more recently, because of the COVID-19 pandemic’s economic effects and the
ensuing global decline in oil consumption. With the exception of a few expenditures
3 https://climateactiontracker.org/countries/cat-graphs/in rail and public transportation and a few early steps toward the development of
renewable energy, Saudi Arabia has not done much to address the environment.
The Saudi government has made several announcements on renewable energy
objectives since 2013, but nothing has been put into action. By 2030, the most recent
goal is for 50% of electricity to come from renewable sources. However, only 0.1% of
the electricity produced in 2019 came from renewable sources.
The Saudi economy has always been based on oil production, which continues to
account for a significant chunk of its GDP today. With Saudi Aramco promising to
have net zero operational emissions by 2050, the Saudi government is now promoting
what it refers to as a “circular carbon economy” to lower emissions from oil and gas
activities. However, as most emissions connected to oil and gas occur from fuel
combustion rather than extraction and processing, this only addresses a small portion
of relevant emissions in Saudi Arabia and internationally.
Saudi Arabia has also announced its aim to plant 450 million trees by 2030—
with a long-term target of 10 billion trees, and collaborative efforts to plant 50 billion
trees in the Middle East. If Saudi Arabia plans to heavily rely on an increased forest
sink, then emissions in other sectors, such as energy and transport, could increase
significantly. The 2060 net zero target does not specify the extent to which it would
rely on the forestry and land use emissions sink.
Climate Diplomacy ( a Solution)
In addition to all these solutions and policies mentioned above regarding a country’s
effort to confront and compete with the challenges brought by climate change, there is
a need for a global-level effort to maintain the change that has happened to our
climate, if not possible to reverse. There is a way to resolve the issue and that is
simply by talking to each other, talking among the stakeholders of international
relations, that are states, unions, intergovernmental organizations, and multinational
companies. This talking is in other words called diplomacy, the art of negotiating, the
art of persuasion.
In a world where every stakeholder has different interests, ideologies, religions,
and perspectives about each other, often times which are very offensive. They fight on
interests, they fight on their ideologies to be proven right. In scenarios like these
diplomacy’s art can best display its colors. It has the potential to bring the states and
other stakeholders on a platform and also come to a profitable conclusion.
For example, the Paris Agreement (2015) was a significant achievement in
contemporary multilateral environmental diplomacy with the EU acting as a bridge
between major emitters and with the aim of shaping a coalition of the willing, in
addition to ‘leading by example. The Paris Agreement is a legally binding treaty and
creates obligations for all parties. It also includes a robust monitoring, reporting, and
evaluation (MRV) system that, more than any other measure, will help the world
reduce GHG emissions and better distribute climate finance and support.
What can a platform like GCCA+ do to support the role of LDCs (the least
developed countries) and SIDS (small islands) in climate diplomacy? It can help to
enhance the quality of enabling environment so that these countries are more ready to
attract and receive financial and technological support; enhance reporting skills,
especially on the issue of finance needs; foster cooperation and knowledge exchange.
The European Commission defines four strands of climate diplomacy at the
political level: Committing to multilateralism in climate policy, particularly to the
implementation of the Paris Agreement
Addressing implications of climate change on peace and security
Accelerating domestic action and raising global ambition
Enhancing international climate cooperation through advocacy and outreach
So the term “climate diplomacy” refers to the application of diplomatic techniques to
promote the goals and efficiency of the global climate change regime as well as to
lessen the hazards that climate change poses to world peace, stability, and economic
growth. Additionally, climate diplomacy comprises utilizing the topic of climate
change to advance other foreign policy goals like enhancing multilateralism or
fostering peace and confidence. The preparation of adequate risk assessment and risk
management strategies at a global strategic level are required for climate diplomacy.
Along with prioritizing climate action with allies throughout the world, climate
diplomacy also includes using public diplomacy, external policy instruments, and
diplomatic dialogue. This entails bilaterally contacting allies and arguing in favor of
more forceful climate action.
Finally, climate change is a very serious issue that needs more focus and efforts
to be made in order to lessen its effects on the home of billions of people. The reports
that are presented by the institutions are very alarming and need to be addressed.
Scientists have predicted that the long-term effects of climate change will
include a decrease in sea ice and an increase in permafrost thawing, an increase in
heat waves and heavy precipitation, and decreased water resources in semi-arid
Climate shifts like heat waves could restrict the ability of people to work
outdoors, and, in extreme cases, put their lives at risk. Under a 2050 climate scenario
developed by NASA, continuing growth of greenhouse emissions at today’s rate could
lead to additional global warming of about 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2050. so an international
effort is needed diplomatically and politically to bring all the stakeholders to a table
and decide the future of the world, they want the future that is predicted or makes
efforts to change it for the betterment of humanity and this globe.